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overview of object oriented programming concepts

Please tell the overview of object oriented programming concepts.


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Object-oriented programming (OOP short) is a system based on the concept of object-oriented programming paradigm. The basic idea is to encapsulate data and functions that can be applied to these data, together as closely as possible in a known object and to the outside, so that methods of foreign objects can not manipulate these data inadvertently.

One can imagine the creation of objects from a class such as the surfacing of cars from the construction plan of a particular type of vehicle. Classes are the blueprints for objects.

The class is similar to a complex data type as in procedural programming, but it goes beyond that: It not only defines the data types that are generated but, it also defines the algorithms that operate on that data.

To a class of objects associated algorithms are referred to as methods.

Frequently, the term method is used interchangeably with the words function or procedure in other programming languages​​. The function or procedure is considered, however, rather than to implement a method. In everyday language we say "object A calls method m of object B."

Methods can receive parameters that must be passed in the call, and have a return value, they return at the end of the caller. For example, the addition method, the parameter number 1 and number 2 and outputs as a return value, the sum of the numbers.

In many object-oriented languages​​, you can specify which objects can invoke a particular method. Differentiate, for example, the Sun Java and PHP four access levels that are checked at compile time.

Under certain conditions, algorithms that operate on the interfaces of a particular object type, also work with derived objects.

This is done so that by inheritance overridden methods are executed in place of the methods of inheriting object, then it is called polymorphism. Polymorphism therefore represents an opportunity to provide an action performed by a name similar objects, each object implements the action in an appropriate manner for the object.

This technique, the so-called overriding implemented but no universal polymorphism, but known as ad hoc polymorphism.

Object-oriented programming languages ​​support the structuring of programs with a specific data type - the object that enables object orientation. The pure object-oriented languages ​​such as Smalltalk, follow the principle "everything is an object." Even primitive types such as integers are represented by objects - even classes are objects here, which in turn are copies of metaclasses. The common object-oriented languages, including C #, C + + and Java handle, the object principle, not all strictly Sun In their elementary data types are not true objects, because they have to give up methods and structure. You ask the developer releases also how much he respects the encapsulation object internal data.

The first known object-oriented programming language was Simula-67. Later, the principles of encapsulation in a class hierarchy were then further developed into Smalltalk. By ANSI/X3.226-1994-Standard Common Lisp / CLOS was the first standardized object-oriented programming language and with ISO 8652:1995 Ada 95 has been selected as the first standardized by ISO-standard object-oriented programming.

Popular modern programming languages ​​(such as Python) support both the OOP and the procedural approach that prevailed in the usual programming of the 1970s and 1980s such as Pascal, Fortran or C. In contrast to this small talk, the oldest still significant OOP language, uncompromising object orientation and thus had a strong influence on the development of popular OOP languages, without themselves to achieve their distribution. Although the breakthrough of OOP only took place in the 1990s, object-oriented programming was developed in the late sixties with Simula 67, a preliminary solution to the modularity and reusability of code.
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