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what are the parts of a hard drive

What are the parts of a hard drive ?


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A hard disk is a device used to store data on a magnetic surface in the form of hard disk plates.

Hard drive use rotating disks. Each plate has a smooth magnetic surface on which digital data can be stored. Information is stored on the plate by the application of a magnetic field close to the magnetic surface by reading. The magnetic medium (film) on the surface of the disk changes its magnetic state in microscopic spots (bits) as a result of the operation of the write head's magnetic field. The information can then be read back by a magneto resistive read sensor. The reading sensor picks up the magnetic flux from the bit transitions.

A modern hard drive's built-in software (firmware) makes it possible to read and write operations on the disk surface efficiently.

Most disk and motherboard manufacturers now analyse technology, which makes to predict impending failure and makes it possible for the user to avoid data losses.

There are a variety of buses access the data on a hard drive includes ATA (IDE, EIDE), Serial ATA, SCSI, SAS, IEEE 1394 (Firewire), USB and Fibre Channel.

SCSI was originally launched with only one speed even 5 MHz (with a maximum data rate of 5 megabytes per second meant), but later versions have dramatically improved the speed. The speed of the SCSI bus has no relationship with the disk's internal speed because there is a data buffer between the bus and the drive's internal bus provided. However, very early discs had a very small buffer and often had to reformat when run on slower computers (like the first IBM compatible computers) installed.

The ATA hard drives due to their controller design not had problems with data speeds, but the early models tended to not compatible to be and could not be in a master / slave configuration (two hard drives on the same cable) running . The shortcoming is largely solved in the 90's when ATA's specification is standardized. Problems still occur when mixing Ultra DMA and non-UDMA devices.

Serial ATA do completely different with the master / slave configurations, and place each disk on its own channel (with its own set of input / output ports).

FireWire / IEEE 1394 and USB (1.0/2.0) hard drives are usually external units containing ATA or SCSI hard drives with ports on the back to ensure easy access and portability. The most FireWire/1394 models can be connected to a string so that additional devices can be added to the computer without required additional ports on the computer itself.

Most hard drives are now only produced by large firms: Seagate, Maxtor (acquired by Seagate in 2006), Western Digital, Samsung and Hitachi basically the former disk manufacturing division of IBM. Fujitsu still makes hard drives for portable and server computers but in 2001 retired from the market for desktop computers. Toshiba is a major manufacturer of 2.5 "and 1.8" portable computers.
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